VH-OEI Boeing 747-438ER (MSN 32913/ 1330), named 'Fysh-McGuinness', of Qantas, at Perth Airport - Wed 22 April 2015 The aircraft was formerly named 'Ceduna', but has been renamed 'Fysh-McGuinness' in honour of Qantas co-founders Hudson Fysh and Paul McGinness, who both served in Gallipoli. It also carries special titles on the forward fuselage: '100 YEARS OF ANZAC / THE SPIRIT LIVES 2014 - 2018 / QANTAS - Proud Supporter of the ANZAC Centenary'. Special charter flight QF100 from Sydney landing on runway 21 at 12:31am with passengers including ten widows of World War One veterans headed to Gallipoli to mark the centenary of Anzac Day. The aircraft parked at Bay 51 to refuel and collect more passengers, and departed as QF100 at 3:26am from runway 03, to Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen Intl Airport, Turkey - a flight time of 13 hours 45 mins. Photo © Marcus Graff

VH-OEI Boeing 747-438ER (MSN 32913/ 1330), named ‘Fysh-McGuinness’, of Qantas, at Perth Airport – Wed 22 April 2015
The aircraft was formerly named ‘Ceduna’, but has been renamed ‘Fysh-McGuinness’ in honour of Qantas co-founders Hudson Fysh and Paul McGinness, who both served in Gallipoli. It also carries special titles on the forward fuselage: ‘100 YEARS OF ANZAC / THE SPIRIT LIVES 2014 – 2018 / QANTAS – Proud Supporter of the ANZAC Centenary’. Special charter flight QF100 from Sydney landing on runway 21 at 12:31am with passengers including ten widows of World War One veterans headed to Gallipoli to mark the centenary of Anzac Day. The aircraft parked at Bay 51 to refuel and collect more passengers, and departed as QF100 at 3:26am from runway 03, to Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen Intl Airport, Turkey – a flight time of 13 hours 45 mins.
Photo © Marcus Graff

VH-OEI Boeing 747-438ER (MSN 32913/ 1330), named 'Fysh-McGuinness', of Qantas, at Perth Airport - Wed 22 April 2015 The aircraft was formerly named 'Ceduna', but has been renamed 'Fysh-McGuinness' in honour of Qantas co-founders Hudson Fysh and Paul McGinness, who both served in Gallipoli. It also carries special titles on the forward fuselage: '100 YEARS OF ANZAC / THE SPIRIT LIVES 2014 - 2018 / QANTAS - Proud Supporter of the ANZAC Centenary'. Special charter flight QF100 to Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen Intl Airport, Turkey (a flight time of 13 hours 45 mins), taking off from runway 03 at 3:26am. The aircraft arrived from Sydney landing on runway 21 at 12:31am, with passengers including ten widows of World War One veterans headed to Gallipoli to mark the centenary of Anzac Day. It parked at Bay 51, to refuel and collect more passengers. Photo © Marcus Graff

VH-OEI Boeing 747-438ER (MSN 32913/ 1330), named ‘Fysh-McGuinness’, of Qantas, at Perth Airport – Wed 22 April 2015
The aircraft was formerly named ‘Ceduna’, but has been renamed ‘Fysh-McGuinness’ in honour of Qantas co-founders Hudson Fysh and Paul McGinness, who both served in Gallipoli. It also carries special titles on the forward fuselage: ‘100 YEARS OF ANZAC / THE SPIRIT LIVES 2014 – 2018 / QANTAS – Proud Supporter of the ANZAC Centenary’. Special charter flight QF100 to Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen Intl Airport, Turkey (a flight time of 13 hours 45 mins), taking off from runway 03 at 3:26am. The aircraft arrived from Sydney landing on runway 21 at 12:31am, with passengers including ten widows of World War One veterans headed to Gallipoli to mark the centenary of Anzac Day. It parked at Bay 51, to refuel and collect more passengers.
Photo © Marcus Graff

22 April 2015 © David Eyre (Photos © Marcus Graff)

Perth received a special visit in the early hours of 22 April 2015, by Qantas Boeing 747-438ER VH-OEI, on a charter flight to Istanbul, Turkey to mark the ANZAC Centenary.

The aircraft was formerly named ‘Ceduna’, but has been renamed ‘Fysh-McGuinness’ in honour of Qantas co-founders Hudson Fysh and Paul McGinness, who both served in Gallipoli. It also carries special titles on the forward fuselage: ‘100 YEARS OF ANZAC / THE SPIRIT LIVES 2014 – 2018 / QANTAS – Proud Supporter of the ANZAC Centenary’.

Special charter flight QF100 from Sydney landing on runway 21 at 12:31am, with passengers including ten widows of World War One veterans headed to Gallipoli to mark the centenary of Anzac Day. The aircraft parked at Bay 51 to refuel and collect more passengers, before departing as QF100 at 3:26am from runway 03, to Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen Intl Airport, Turkey – a flight time of 13 hours 45 minutes.

VH-OEI will perform another charter flight through Perth on the afternoon of 28 April 2015, returning the passengers from Turkey to Perth and Sydney.

VH-XZK Boeing 737-838 (MSN 39366/4705) of Qantas, named 'Cook', at Perth Airport – Tue 7 October 2014. QF1101 from Newman, taxying in at 5:42pm, after landing on runway 21. International terminal, with the tails of a Jetstar A320, Emirates Boeing 777-300ER (A6-EGU) and Air New Zealand Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner (ZK-NZF) visible, and hills of the Darling Range in the background. Photo © David Eyre

VH-XZK Boeing 737-838 (MSN 39366/4705) of Qantas, named ‘Cook’, at Perth Airport – Tue 7 October 2014.
QF1101 from Newman, taxying in at 5:42pm, after landing on runway 21. International terminal, with the tails of a Jetstar A320, Emirates Boeing 777-300ER (A6-EGU) and Air New Zealand Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner (ZK-NZF) visible, and hills of the Darling Range in the background.
Photo © David Eyre

17 April 2015 © David Eyre

A year after abandoning regular international services from Perth, Qantas has announced that it from 26 June 2015, the airline will restart flights between Perth and Singapore, using Boeing 737-800 aircraft.

The new service will operate five flights per week between Perth and Singapore, and introductory one-way fares are available for a limited time, starting at $199. The schedule is as follows:

  • MON/WED/FRI/SUN (Boeing 737-800): QF71 dep Perth at 12:00pm – arr Singapore at 5:20pm/ QF72 dep Singapore at 6.25pm – arr Perth 11.40pm;
  • SAT (Boeing 737-800): QF71 dep Perth at 11:30pm – arr Singapore at 4:50pm/ QF72 dep Singapore at 5.50pm – arr Perth 11.05pm.

Western Australians are happy that Qantas will resume regular international services from Perth, but some are disappointed with the choice of narrowbody Boeing 737s. Competitors offer large widebody aircraft; Singapore Airlines operates four flights per day with larger Airbus A330-300 and Boeing 777-200ER aircraft, whilst its low-cost subsidiary Scoot offers once daily services with the new Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner. Qantas Group low-cost airline Jetstar Asia operates 13 flights between Perth and Singapore each week, using narrowbody A320 aircraft.

Qantas previously used Airbus A330-200 aircraft on the route, but says it is now matching aircraft and schedules with customer demand. The airline says that passengers will have access to seat back in-flight entertainment and new meals. The 737s also have a 12-seat Business Class cabin, with those passengers receiving special meals and Qantas pyjamas provided on the Singapore to Perth.

Qantas ended its regular Perth to Singapore service in May 2014, with CEO Alan Joyce blaming increased competition and fuel prices (which have since decreased). However, Qantas operated seasonal services on the route in peak holiday periods. In August 2014, Qantas mentioned a “Plan B” for Perth, with plans to relaunch the Perth-Singapore service “with a different approach.”

In the 12 months to September 2014, 78,800 visitors from Singapore spent $193 million in WA. Those figures represent a 30 per cent increase in visitors and a 21 per cent increase in spend on the year before.

Qantas also announced that their new domestic Business Lounge should open later this year, and that there are an additional two weekly return services between Perth and Brisbane, for a total of up to 30 flights between the two cities every week.

VH-NHM Fokker 100 (MSN 11449) of Network Aviation, at Geraldton Airport - Sat 15 November 2014. Arrived from Perth at 10:47am, operating a flight for QantasLink, instead of the usual Dash 8Q-400. Photo © David Eyre

VH-NHM Fokker 100 (MSN 11449) of Network Aviation, at Geraldton Airport – Sat 15 November 2014.
Arrived from Perth at 10:47am, operating a flight for QantasLink, instead of the usual Dash 8Q-400.
Photo © David Eyre

17 April 2015 © David Eyre

Qantas Group announced that two additional Fokker 100 jets have been acquired for use by Network Aviation, brining their fleet of the type to 14.

Network will also use its F100 aircraft on some services from Perth to Port Hedland, Karratha, Newman and Broome from later this year. Qantas states that this enables the frequency of services to remain the same, whilst capacity with changing market demand.

This downsizing of aircraft types is perhaps a reflection of the downturn in the resources industry, plus some resources projects are transitioning from the construction phase (which involves thousands of extra workers) to the production phase.

Artist impression of the proposed helipads at the selected location. Image © Building Lines

Artist impression of the proposed helipads at the selected location, 200 metres east of WA Rowing Club, on the north side of the Swan River.
Image © Building Lines

Artist impression of the proposed helipads at the selected location, 200 metres east of WA Rowing Club, on the north side of the Swan River. Image © Building Lines

Artist impression of the proposed helipads at the selected location, 200 metres east of WA Rowing Club, on the north side of the Swan River.
Image © Building Lines

Artist impression of the proposed helipads at the selected location, 200 metres east of WA Rowing Club, on the north side of the Swan River. Image © Building Lines

Artist impression of the proposed helipads at the selected location, 200 metres east of WA Rowing Club, on the north side of the Swan River.
Image © Building Lines

10 April 2015 (Updated 14 April 2015) © David Eyre

The City of Perth has approved a two-year trial of of two floating helipads on the north side of the Swan River, opposite the Perth Concert Hall and Terrace Road carpark, 200 metres to the east of WA Rowing Club, near Barrack Street Jetty.

Approval for the trial was granted on 7 April 2015, in a unanimous vote, but is subject to conditions and environmental regulatory approval from the Swan River Trust.

Skyline Aviation Group is funding the entire project and had first proposed the helipads in August 2013. Skyline Aviation is based in Newcastle, NSW with a fleet of Robinson R22’s and R44’s, Agusta Bell AB206 JetRangers, Eurocopter AS350 Squirrels and BO-105s. Skyline will purchase and base one helicopter at the helipad, but has not yet decided on the type.

Brett Campany, the head of Skyline’s Perth operations, previously flew for Rotorvation, Channel 9 News Perth and was the owner/operator of Wild Blue Helicopters in Margaret River. Before becoming a pilot, he flew as aircrew for Surveillance Australia on the Coastwatch contract and aboard AeroRescue’s Dornier 328.

Mr Campany expects that other operators will pay a landing fee to use the second helipad, for the purpose of picking up and dropping off helicopter charter passengers in the city. This was a common request when he was based at Jandakot. The RAC rescue helicopter, WA Police helicopter or Surf Life Saving WA’s beach patrol helicopter may occasionally require the use of the second helipad.

The 7-metres by 7-metres floating helipads will be positioned 20 metres from the river edge. They were designed, surveyed and engineered by Building Lines, and are capable of taking a weight of up to 16 tonnes.

Floating helipads were chosen because a land-based helipad would require the council to provide funding, clear an appropriate area and provide infrastructure. The water-based location also keeps the noise profile to a minimum by increasing the distance between the helicopter and local businesses and residences. To further reduce noise pollution, operating hours will be restricted to 7am to 7pm, seven days a week, except on public holidays. The company has already conducted some acoustic noise data analysis. It is expected that the helipads will take a maximum of 30 flights a day. Refuelling will not be permitted at the helipads, for environmental reasons.

Mr Campany said that “We will be conducting scenic flights, however to reduce the amount of noise impact on the surrounding businesses and residence, the shortest flight will be around 20 minutes. The focus is mainly on tourism and the promoting the City of Perth, Swan River and the coastline from Hillarys to Fremantle. We will also be providing services to Rottnest Island and the Swan Valley.”

“With my previous business in the Margaret River region, I also have strong relationships with the wineries, breweries, retreats and resorts in the South West region.”

There have been requests for a permanent helipad location within the central city over the last decade. Helicopters have used various temporary sites since the 1960s, mainly near The Causeway. In the mid-1980s, a temporary helipad was built for helicopters to use during the America’s Cup yacht races. This was located on the river foreshore at the eastern end of Riverside Drive, but was later moved due to construction of the Point Fraser development. Another temporary facility was set up from 2006 to 2011 at East Perth, between Trinity Avenue and The Causeway, but the licence for this facility was terminated because of the Waterbank project. Another temporary helipad was established on the east side of Camfield Drive opposite Burswood Casino Resort, but the lease for that site expired. Langley Park has also been used occasionally as a helicopter landing site for special occasions and emergencies. Since that time, helicopters have been restricted to Jandakot Airport.

The city location will enable scenic and business flights to depart from a location close to the CBD, rather than having to drive to Jandakot and back.
B-2732 Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner (MSN 34926/93) of China Southern Airlines at Perth Airport – Wed 1 April 2015. The first China Southern Boeing 787 service to Australia is greeted with the traditional water cannon salute by airport fire crews in the pre-dawn darkness at 6:02 am. Photo © Ben Cambridge

B-2732 Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner (MSN 34926/93) of China Southern Airlines at Perth Airport – Wed 1 April 2015.
The first China Southern Boeing 787 service to Australia is greeted with the traditional water cannon salute by airport fire crews in the pre-dawn darkness at 6:02 am.
Photo © Ben Cambridge

*** 1st Visit to Perth ***

*** 1st Visit to Perth ***
B-2732 Boeing 787-8 DreamLiner (MSN 34926} of China Southern Airlines at Perth Airport – 1 April 2015.
Taxiing to the International Terminal at 6:08 am.
Photo © Keith Anderson.

*** 1st Visit to Perth ***

*** 1st Visit to Perth ***
B-2732 Boeing 787-8 DreamLiner (MSN 34926} of China Southern Airlines at Perth Airport – 1 April 2015.
Taxiing to the International Terminal at 6:08 am.
Photo © Keith Anderson.

*** 1st Visit to Perth ***

*** 1st Visit to Perth ***
B-2732 Boeing 787-8 DreamLiner (MSN 34926} of China Southern Airlines at Perth Airport – 1 April 2015.
Pushing back from the International Terminal at 8:32 am.
Photo © Matt Hannigan.

*** 1st Visit to Perth ***

*** 1st Visit to Perth ***
B-2732 Boeing 787-8 DreamLiner (MSN 34926} of China Southern Airlines at Perth Airport – 1 April 2015.
Taking off from runway 21 AT 8:42 am.
Photo © Keith Anderson.

1 April 2015 © David Eyre

China Southern celebrated the first service to Australia by their Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner today, with the type replacing the Airbus A330-200 on Perth services.

China Southern has ten Boeing 787-8s in its fleet, and is the fourth airline to use Boeing 787s on services to Perth, joining Air New Zealand, Thai Airways and Scoot.

B-2732 (MSN 34926/93) operated flight CZ319, which departed Guangzhou at 10:37pm (42 mins late) local time on 31 March 2015. The aircraft made up time en route, arriving at Perth the next morning on 1 April 2015, landing on runway 21 at 5:58am after a flight of 7 hours 21 minutes.

As the aircraft taxied in on Taxiway T, it was greeted with the traditional water cannon salute. It then accidentally taxied past the bay and had to taxy back out on taxiway S, left onto taxiway C2 and back in via Taxiway T, to park at Bay 52 at 6.12am.

The return flight CZ320 back to Guangzhou took off Perth’s runway 21 at 08:45am and arrived at its destination at 4:35pm local time, a flight of 7 hours 49 minutes.

China Southern will add a fourth weekly service from 16 July 2015, and is changing schedule timings to include morning and night arrivals and departures at Perth, enabling faster connections to Europe and the USA. Schedule will be as follows:

  • Until 12 JUL 2015: Wed/Fri/Sun: CZ319 arrives Perth at 0600 / CZ320 departs Perth at 0830.
  • From 15 JUL 2015:
    • Tue & Fri: CZ319 arrives Perth 2150 / CZ320 departs Perth at 2330.
    • Thu & Sun: CZ319 arrives Perth at 0600 / CZ320 departs Perth at 0830.

The airline first commenced services to Perth on 9 November 2011 on the Guangzhou – Perth route, which operated three times per week on Wednesday, Friday and Sunday mornings.

Aircraft types used on the route have changed as follows (dates are arrival dates in Perth):

  • Airbus A330-300 (9 November 2011 – 1 April 2013): 287 passengers (4 First Class, 24 Business Class, 48 Premium Economy, 211 Economy seats).
  • Airbus A330-200 (3 April 2013 – March 2015): 218 passengers (4 First Class, 24 Business Class, 48 Premium Economy, 142 Economy seats).
  • Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner (1 April 2015 onwards): 228 passengers (4 First Class, 24 Business Class, 200 Economy).

WA provides about 70% of Australia’s exports to China. In 2011, when China Southern commenced services to Perth, China was ranked as the 12th largest source of international visitors for WA, but in 2014 Chinese tourist visitors had increased 63% to 6th place (3rd biggest in terms of money spent).

China Southern is the world’s 6th largest airline measured by passengers carried. It also operates to Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane.

China Southern has had links to Western Australia since 1993, when it started the China Southern WA Flying College, with bases at Jandakot and Merredin. The College trains 200 pilots, engineers and support staff each year.

The new Virgin Australia pier, under construction at Terminal 1, Perth Airport - Sun 29 March 2015. Photo © Matt Hannigan

The new Virgin Australia pier, under construction at Terminal 1, Perth Airport – Sun 29 March 2015.
Photo © Matt Hannigan

The new Virgin Australia pier, under construction at Terminal 1, Perth Airport - 7 March 2015. Photo © Nearmap

The new Virgin Australia pier, under construction at Terminal 1, Perth Airport – 7 March 2015.
Photo © Nearmap

The new Virgin Australia pier, under construction at Terminal 1, Perth Airport - 7 March 2015. Photo © Nearmap

The new Virgin Australia pier, under construction at Terminal 1, Perth Airport – 7 March 2015.
Photo © Nearmap

31 March 2015

Virgin Australia’s $200 million new terminal pier at Terminal 1 has again been delayed, and is now expected to open in late 2015.

The new pier was originally due to open in June 2014, but has been delayed several times. A new building contractor has been engaged to complete the project, adding to the delays.

Virgin Australia says it has lost millions of dollars due to operational inefficiencies caused by the current airport layout. Currently, Virgin operates from three terminals on opposite sides of the airport – Terminal 1 for international flights, Terminal 2 for regional flights by Virgin Australia Regional Airlines and Terminal 3 for domestic intrastate and interstate flights.

The upgrades to the Terminal 1 departures area are also behind schedule. A new building contractor has been brought in to finish the work. .

Work on the Terminal 1 forecourt, and the expansion and upgrade of Terminal 3 is underway

VN-A372 Airbus A330-223 (MSN 294) of Vietnam Airlines at Tan Son Nhat International Airport - 5 October 2014. Photo © Steve Jaksic

VN-A372 Airbus A330-223 (MSN 294) of Vietnam Airlines at Tan Son Nhat International Airport – 5 October 2014.
Photo © Steve Jaksic

30 March 2015

Vietnam’s Ministry of Transport is restructuring the country’s aviation sector to make the country one of the top aviation centres in Southeast Asia.

If the plan is approved, Vietnam Airlines may become as large as Thai Airways International, and it will commence services to Perth from Vietnam by 2020.

Vietnamese people currently have a number of restrictions on travel out of Vietnam, so they do not visit WA in significant numbers. However, there is a relatively large population of Vietnamese migrants living in Perth, ranking 11th in terms of migrant population size.

Vietnam is also an increasingly popular destination for Australian tourists.

VH-LQJ Bombardier DHC-8-402NG Dash 8 Q400 (MSN 4414) of QantasLink, at Perth Airport - Tue 24 March 2015. *Final QantasLink Dash 8 Q400 revenue service in Western Australia.* Flight QF2429 from Learmonth, on final approach to runway 21 at 6.29pm. The aircraft departed the next morning via Adelaide to its new base in Brisbane. Photo © Laura Collier

VH-LQJ Bombardier DHC-8-402NG Dash 8 Q400 (MSN 4414) of QantasLink, at Perth Airport – Tue 24 March 2015.
*Final QantasLink Dash 8 Q400 revenue service in Western Australia.* Flight QF2429 from Learmonth, on final approach to runway 21 at 6.29pm. The aircraft departed the next morning via Adelaide to its new base in Brisbane.
Photo © Laura Collier

25 March 2015

QantasLink Bombardier DHC-8-402NG Dash 8Q-400 VH-LQJ operated the final service by the type in Western Australia (for the time being) on 24 March 2015.

On the final day, VH-LQJ flew Perth-Geraldton-Perth as QF2432/QF2433, then Perth-Learmonth as QF2428, returning to Perth as QF2929 at 6.29pm, where it was greeted by a water cannon salute by the airport fire crews.

Early on 25 March, VH-LQJ departed Perth to Adelaide and Brisbane as QF670D. Only 90 minutes after arriving in Brisbane, it operated a revenue service from Brisbane to Roma and return.

Qantas Group announced the withdrawal of the type last November to better match capacity with demand, and increase aircraft utilisation. All QantasLink services out of Perth are now operated by either QantasLink Boeing 717s or Network Aviation Fokker 100s (Network is owned by Qantas Group).

Dash 8-Q400 services began with Perth – Geraldton and Perth – Learmonth services from 21 November 2011, with VH-LQD and VH-LQG being based in Perth. These were replaced in late 2014 by VH-LQJ and VH-LQK.

A6-ECN Boeing 777-36NER (MSN 37705/761) of Emirates, over the northern suburbs of Perth – Sat 12 April 2014. Photo © David Eyre

A6-ECN Boeing 777-36NER (MSN 37705/761) of Emirates, over the northern suburbs of Perth – Sat 12 April 2014.
Flight EK422 from Dubai, heading northeast at 3,400 feet over the northern suburbs at 12:18pm, before turning right to join the approach to Perth Airport’s runway 21.
Photo © David Eyre

23 March 2015 – © David Eyre

With the introduction of the Airbus A380 to Emirates’ daily evening EK420/EK421 Dubai – Perth services from 1 May 2015, the airline has announced that from 6 July 2015, it will:

  • cease the daily afternoon EK422/EK423 Boeing 777-300ER service; and
  • upsize the daily morning EK424/EK425 service from a Boeing 777-200LR to a 777-300ER.

The schedule from 6 July 2015 will then be as follows:

  • Airbus A380-800: EK420 departs Dubai at 0255 – arrives in Perth at 1735 / EK421 departs Perth at 2210 – arrives Dubai at 0520 the following morning
  • Boeing 777-300ER: EK424 departs Dubai at 1010 – arrives in Perth at 0045 the following morning / EK425 departs Perth at 0605 – arrives in Dubai at 1300

9 March 2015 © David Eyre

Perth Airport has warned the WA Planning Commission that if the State Government approves housing developments under runway flight paths, there will be increased pressure for night curfews to reduce aircraft noise.

The Government is currently assessing a proposal to rezone the former Rosehill Golf Course in South Guildford into 800 home sites for about 2000 residents. This would be directly affected by Perth Airport’s third runway, which is to be constructed in the next few years, parallel to and to the east of Horrie Miller Drive.

Perth Airport CEO Brad Geatches queried why the State Government is urging the development of the third runway, whilst also allowing homes to be constructed under the third runway flight path.

Sydney, Adelaide, Gold Coast and Geelong have curfews which restrict or prevent aircraft movements between 11pm and 6am. A curfew at Perth would make flights more expensive and reduce choice, because flights would not be able to operate in and out of Perth during the curfew hours and airlines would not be able to offer cheaper late night flights.

When Perth Airport was built in 1942, there were few residential areas nearby, but commercial interests have been allowed to gradually surround the airport with residential and industrial areas. Perth Airport and Airservices Australia are already being pressured by current neighbouring residential areas to reduce aircraft noise.

Perth is Australia’s fourth busiest airport, with about 150,000 aircraft movements a year. National guidelines recommend homes should not be built near airports where plane noise regularly exceeds 70 decibels, but recent Airservices Australia noise monitoring at Queens Road, South Guildford, showed that nearly 3,500 flights per month generated noise levels above 80 decibels.